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Columbium Plus Tantalum

Tantalum 06/01/2020

columbium plus tantalum

Columbium Plus Tantalum

Samples Containing Niobium or Tantalum

Niobium is named from Niobe the daughter of Tantalus in Greek Mythology.

It was named Columbium (Cb) at the time of its discovery in 1801.

This name was used until IUPAC adopted the name "niobium" in 1950 after more than a century of controversy.

Niobium (Nb) and tantalum (Ta) Tantalum (Ta), much like Zr and Hf, have nearly identical atomic radii.

The radii of the ions (Nb+5 and Hf+5) are also almost identical which explains in part the fact that the chemistry of these two elements is so similar.

Nb and Ta are always found together in natural mineral deposits and both are relatively quite rare, with abundance estimates in the earth's crust ranging from 0.01 to 0.0001 % m/m.

The most important ores are Tantalite (Mn, Fe)·(Ta, Nb)2O6 containing 38-86 % m/m Ta2O5 and Columbite (Mn, Fe)·(Nb, Ta)2O6 containing 40-78% m/m Nb2O5.

These formulas are written in such a way as to accommodate the fact that niobium and tantalum replace each other freely in these minerals in addition to the fact that Fe and Mn substitute for each other as well.

Tantalum has a better corrosion resistance than Nb and is used for plating chemical apparatus which is in turn used for handling highly corrosive acid liquors and for radiation shields and crucibles in high-temperature vacuum furnaces.

Niobium has a small thermal neutron capture cross-section and good resistance to several liquid-metal coolants.

It is therefore of major interest in nuclear technology.

Niobium is also found in a variety of alloys used for a variety of applications ranging from jet engines to bone implants.

Sampling and Handling

The most common matrices where Nb and Ta are found are minerals, ores, metals, and alloys.

The sampling of Ta/Nb bearing ores and minerals requires special attention due to the fact that these elements vary widely even among samples from neighboring locations due to the fact that they are easily substituted for one another as discussed above.

Astm B521 Ta1 Seamless Micro Tantalum

Consequently, samples must be obtained from multiple containers where they are crushed to about 10 mesh, coning and quartering are applied and the material is further pulverized to pass a 20 mesh screen.

The material is further mixed where it is reduced (coned/quartered) to about 300 grams and then further ground so that the analytical sample will pass an 80 mesh screen.

Metals and alloys are sampled by standard procedures.

For additional details, see the following information on sampling and subsampling.

The Metals and Alloys

Niobium and Tantalum metals resemble Platinum in appearance when polished and they are somewhat darker and bluer when unpolished.

The metals are attacked by HCl, HNO3 or Aqua Regia, hot or cold, dilute or concentrated.

There is no reaction with hot dilutes H2SO4, but boiling, concentrated H2SO4 slowly dissolves them.

The metals are soluble in HF and are readily attacked by a mixture of HF and HNO3.

In short, the metals are best dissolved in HF in combination with other acids such as nitric, perchloric, and HCl.

The following are some suggestions:

Nb0 or Ta0 (0.1 gram) - use a 5 mL 15M HNO3 + 3 mL HF + 3 mL H2O.

(There are as many combinations of nitric/HF/water that will work.

At a minimum, you need the same number of moles of nitric acid as Nb0 or Ta0 plus a minimum of 8 times the number of moles of HF.

Water helps solubility but too much can destroy the nitric acid oxidizing ability, so keep the water to no more than the volume of nitric, i.e.,1:1 nitric/water.

The use of concentrated sulfuric can speed the reaction because of its action upon the nitric acid.

Some specific combinations follow.)

R05252 Ta2 5W Tantalum Tungsten Pipes

Nb/Ta steel (0.2 g) - use 5 mL HNO3 + 2 mL (40%) HF + 5 mL h3O.

Alloys containing Zr + some combination of Ti, W, Nb, Ta, and Hf (0.5g) -5 mL HNO3 + 5 mL HF + 15 mL 1:1 H2SO4.

Ta steel (1 g) - 30 mL Aqua Regia + 6 mL conc.HF.

It is interesting to note that in the numerous acid digestions reviewed, all of them included the use of HF.

Oxides, Minerals, and Ores

The most important ores are Tantalite (Mn, Fe)·(Ta, Nb)2O6 containing 38-86 % m/m Ta2O5 and Columbite (Mn, Fe)·(Nb, Ta)2O6containing 40-78% m/m Nb2O5.

The minerals and ores in addition to the oxides are generally not soluble in acids.

Fusions are generally required and the following are the most commonly used:

Sodium Peroxide

The fusion of up to 0.5 grams of the sample with 10 grams of sodium peroxide (mix well).

Use a Ni crucible and fuse for 5 to 10 minutes at a dull red heat over a small flame.

Exercise caution if organic material is present by performing a dry ash first.

Niobium (Columbium) and Tantalum Statistics and Information

Niobium and columbium are synonymous names for the chemical element with atomic number 41;

columbium was the name given in 1801, and niobium (Nb) was the name officially designated by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry in 1950. Niobium in the form of ferroniobium is used worldwide, mostly as an alloying element in steels and in superalloys. Appreciable amounts of niobium in the form of high-purity ferroniobium and nickel niobium are used in nickel-, cobalt-, and iron-base superalloys for such applications as jet engine components, rocket subassemblies, and heat-resisting and combustion equipment.

Tantalum (Ta) is ductile, easily fabricated, highly resistant to corrosion by acids, and a good conductor of heat and electricity and has a high melting point. The major use for tantalum, as tantalum metal powder, is in the production of electronic components, mainly tantalum capacitors. Major end uses for tantalum capacitors include portable telephones, pagers, personal computers, and automotive electronics. Alloyed with other metals, tantalum is also used in making carbide tools for metalworking equipment and in the production of superalloys for jet engine components.

The United States does not have a niobium or tantalum mining industry because resources are of low grade, and the United States must import all of its niobium and tantalum source materials for processing. Brazil and Canada are the major producers of niobium mineral concentrates, and Australia, Brazil, and Canada are the major producers of tantalum mineral concentrates.

Astm B521 Ta1 Seamless Micro Tantalum

Economic Importance of Niobium and Tantalum

41 5.2.4 Hypoallergenic applications: medicine and jewelry

Niobium and some niobium alloys are physiologically inert and hypoallergenic.

For this reason, niobium is used in prosthetics and implant devices, such as pacemakers.

Niobium treated with sodium hydroxide forms a porous layer that aids osseointegration.

Like titanium, tantalum, and aluminum, niobium can be heated and anodized (reactive metal anodization) to produce a wide array of iridescent colors for jewelry, where its hypoallergenic property is highly desirable, (Azevedo et al., 2002).

5.3 Tantalum applications

5.3.1 Capacitors and electronic development

Tantalum is a key metal in the current electronics industry.

It is primarily consumed for the manufacture of tantalum capacitors utilized in mobile phones, laptop computers, digital cameras, as well as automotive and medical electronic equipment, (Mosheim, 2003).

Capacitors are electrical components that store, filter, and regulate electrical energy and current flow and are one of the essential passive components used in circuit boards.

Caprices are primarily used for storing electrical charges, conducting alternating current (AC), and blocking or separating different voltages levels of the direct current source (DC).

While capacitors are one type of component, there are many types of capacitors that are differentiated by the materials used in construction, each providing unique features and benefits.

Understanding basic capacitor construction and how different materials can affect their characteristics can aid in choosing the proper capacitor for a given application.

All capacitors are formed with the same basic structure.

Two parallel metal electrode plates are separated by a non-conductive material called the dielectric.

When a voltage exists between these conductive parallel plates, an electric field is present in the 42 dielectrics.

This field stores energy and produces a mechanical force between the plates.

The unit of capacitance is the farad where 1 farad of capacitance means 1 coulomb of charge is stored on the plates when one volt is applied.

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