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Highest Melting Point Tantalum

Tantalum 09/08/2020

highest melting point tantalum

Highest Melting Point Tantalum

Facts About Tantalum: Atomic Number: 73 Atomic Symbol: Ta Atomic Weight: 180.94788 Melting Point: 5,462.6 F (3,017 C) Boiling Point:9,856.4 F (5,458C)

Word origin: Tantalum is named after a Greek mythological character, Tantalos.

Discovery: Tantalum was discovered by Anders Ekeberg in 1802.

It was thought tantalum and niobium were identical elements until Rowe in 1844, and Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac, in 1866 showed they were different acids.

Properties of tantalum

Tantalum is a hard, grey, ductile metal.

In its pure form, it can be drawn into a fine wire.

Tantalum is nearly immune to chemical attacks at temperatures below 302 F (150 C).

Tantalum oxide films are very stable and have good rectifying as well as dielectric properties.

It has a melting point only exceeded by two other elements and becomes much more reactive at high temperatures.

[See Periodic Table of the Elements ]

Sources of tantalum

Tantalum occurs naturally in the mineral columbite-tantalite.

It’s mainly found in Australia, Brazil, Mozambique, Thailand, Portugal, Nigeria, Zaire, and Canada.

Separating tantalum from niobium requires either electrolysis, reduction of potassium fluorotantalate with sodium or reacting the carbide with oxide.

Natural tantalum contains two isotopes while twenty-five isotopes are known to exist.

Uses of tantalum

Tantalum is used in a variety of alloys to add high strength, ductility, and a high melting point.

When drawn into a fine wire, it’s used as a filament for evaporating metals such as aluminum.

More than half of tantalum’s use is for electrolytic capacitors and vacuum furnace parts.

The element is also used to make chemical process equipment, nuclear reactors, aircraft, and missile parts.

Tantalum has found use in making surgical appliances because it’s completely immune to body liquids.

Tantalum oxide is used to make special glass with a high index of refraction for items such as camera lenses.

High Melting Points of Tantalum in a Laser-Heated Diamond Anvil Cell.

Reactivity of Ta with diamond anvils.

Monochromatic (λ 0.3738Å) XRD spectra of a Ta sample in a MgO pressure medium recorded during one heating series at ≃ 90 GPA.

The MAR-CCD bidimensional spectra have been circularly integrated.

The diffraction peaks of TaC appear around 3600 K.

Inset: temperature measured by pyrometry as a function of time (and laser’s power).

The numbered filled squares correspond to the numbered XRD spectra.

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After the reaction between Ta and diamond, the temperature cannot be increased.

Reactivity of Ta with a pressure medium.

XRD spectra of Ta before or after heating above 4000 K in Ar (a), AlO3(b), and NaCl (c) pressure media.

The circles, squares, and plus signs, respectively, identify Ta, pressure medium, and TaC.

Our interpretation of these spectra is: tantalum forms an amorphous alloy with Ar and chemically reacts with Al.

Melting and Boiling Points of Elements of Periodic Table

Melting and boiling points are very important physical properties in chemistry when we study about elements and compounds.

Different elements and compounds have different melting and boiling points.

From studying values of melting and boiling points of elements, we can get an understanding of the structure of elements, intermolecular forces between molecules or atoms, and more.

In this tutorial, we will cover the following sections.

Reasons for having different melting and boiling points of elements and compounds

Comparing melting and boiling points values of each group in the periodic table with trends

Melting and boiling points of organic compounds

Comparing melting and boiling points of different elements and compounds in s, p and d blocks

Melting and boiling point variations are not clear (do not have a uniform pattern) throughout the periodic table (this means we cannot see a similar trend always.

You will understand this when you finish reading this tutorial).

But we can see, some elements have higher melting points and boiling points while some elements have less.

In the first part of this tutorial, we learn the melting and boiling points of s, p, d blocks elements, and their compounds and followed by organic compounds.

Ath group elements (carbon and silicon) show high melting and boiling points in the second and third periods respectively because they have covalent gigantic lattice structures.

Melting and boiling points across a period

In the first three periods, there is a clear variation of melting and boiling points (has a clear trend).

Melting and boiling points increase up to the IVA group when going from left to right.

(As an example from sodium to argon in the third period).

IVA group has the highest melting and boiling point element.

Then it starts to decrease melting and boiling points from the VA group to noble gases (VIIA).

Why different elements and compounds have different melting and boiling points?

There are many reasons to effect melting and boiling points of elements and compounds.

One or several things may affect melting and boiling points.

Molecular mass - when molecular mass increases, the possibility of increasing melting and boiling point is also high.

Intermolecular forces such as hydrogen bonds, dipole-dipole attraction forces, van der Waals' forces between atoms or molecules.

When intermolecular forces become stronger, it also increases the melting and boiling points of elements and compounds.

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Metallic lattice ( important to decide melting points of metals such as sodium, magnesium and other metal elements)

Ionic lattice - In ionic compounds such as NaCl, CaF2, MgO, ionic lattice exists.

According to the strength of ionic lattice, melting and boiling points may vary.

Lowest melting and boiling points elements in a period

Inert gasses have the lowest melting and boiling points element in period because their form only van der Waals' forces are they are very weak to form a strong intermolecular force between atoms.

Trends of melting and boiling points groups of the periodic table

Now, we are going to learn about, how melting and boiling points of elements vary in the group by considering taking each group separately.

Melting and boiling points values of s block

S block contains group IA and group IIA and most elements of they are metals without hydrogen.

(hydrogen has both alkali metal properties and halogen properties.)

Alkali metals melting and boiling points

Alkali metals (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) are soft and have low melting and boiling points.

Alkali metals have only one valence electron per metal atom and therefore, the energy binding the atoms in the crystal lattice of the metal is low.

Therefore, the metallic bonds in these metals are not very strong.

So melting and boiling points decreases on moving down from lithium to cesium.

Hydrogen Boiling point: -252.90C

Melting and boiling points of alkaline earth metals

Alkaline earth metals (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra) have low melting and boiling points when compared with d block metals.

But their melting and boiling points are higher than corresponding alkali metals in the same period due to a comparatively smaller size.

But melting and boiling points do not show regular trends in the alkali earth metal group.

Why alkali metals have low melting points than alkaline earth metals?

Both alkali and alkali earth metals are in s block.

We know alkali metals have only one valence electron per metal atom.

But alkaline earth metals have two valence electrons per metal atom.

Also, alkali earth metals are small in size than alkali metals.

When the number of valence electrons in the lattice increases, the metallic bond is strong.

Also when the atomic radius decreases, the metallic bond becomes strong.

Also Therefore metallic bonds of alkali earth metals are much stronger than alkali metals.

Therefore melting and boiling points of alkali metals are less than melting and boiling points of alkali earth metals

Why beryllium has a high melting point and boiling point than other members of group two?

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Beryllium is the smallest size atom of the group 2 elements.

So its ionic lattice is stronger than other alkaline earth metals.

Melting and boiling point of p block elements

Now we are going to discuss variations of melting and boiling points of p block elements.

In the p block, there are various types of elements including metals, non-metals, and their physical states are also very different.

At room temperature, some of them are in solid-state, and some are at a gaseous state.

Bromine is a liquid state too.

P block contains the highest melting points element (carbon) and lowest melting point element of the periodic table (helium).

Now, we are going to look at the melting and boiling points of p block elements from group 13 to group 18.

Halogen and inert gases melting and boiling points

Halogen and noble gases are located in the p block of the periodic table.

Halogens exist as diatomic molecules such as F2, Cl2, Br2, I2, and noble gases that exist as monoatomic molecules.

When going down each group, molecular mass increases which can be the reason to have higher melting and boiling points.

Also, all halogen and inert gas molecules form only van der Waals' forces which are the weakest intermolecular forces and do not affect much to melting and boiling of halogen and noble gases.

The molecular mass of molecules has the greatest effect to the increment of melting and boiling points.

So Melting and boiling points of both halogen and inert gases increase along with the group.

Boiling and melting points of group 13 elements

Boron, Aluminum, Gallium, Indium, Thallium are the elements of group 13 elements.

Melting and boiling points decrease on moving down the group.

However, the decrease in melting point is not as regular as in boiling points.

Gallium has a very low melting point (303K).

Melting and boiling points of group 14 elements

The atoms of this group form covalent bonds with each other and therefore, there are strong binding forces between their atoms in both solid and liquid states.

The melting and boiling points of group 14 elements are much higher than the group 13 elements.

When moving down the group, the melting and boiling points decrease.

Group 15 elements of melting and boiling points

Nitrogen has the lowest melting point and boiling point.

Antimony has the highest melting point and boiling point.

Group 16 elements of melting and boiling points

Oxygen has the lowest melting point and boiling point.

Tellurium (Te) has the highest melting point and boiling point.

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Boiling points of group 17

Boiling points increase on moving down from fluorine to iodine.

Melting and boiling points of 3d metals

Melting and boiling points of 3d metals are generally higher than s block elements.

Vanadium has the highest melting point and zinc has the lowest melting point.

But melting and boiling points do not show regular trends.

Why zinc has the lowest melting point in the 3d metal series?

Zinc has a stable electrons configuration, 3d10 4s2.

Therefore zinc does not contribute many electrons to the metallic lattice-like other 3d metals.

Hence the strength of metallic lattice is lower than other 3d metals lattices.

So zinc has the lowest melting point in 3d metal series.

Melting point drop of manganese

The electrons configuration of manganese is 3d5 4s2.

That electrons configuration has some stability because all five d orbits are half-filled (each d orbit has one electron.) So the contribution of electrons to the metallic lattice is limited in manganese.

Therefore lattice is not much strong.

That is the reason why manganese has a sudden drop in melting point.

Melting and boiling points of compounds

Melting and boiling points of alkali metal halides decrease with the increase in atomic mass of the halides as:

F- > Cl- > Br- > I-

Ex: Melting point of NaCl is higher than NaBr

Forgiven halide ion, melting and boiling points of LiX is always less than NaX.

Melting and boiling points of organic compounds

Thousands of organic compounds are discovered so far by scientists in the world.

With discovering a lot of compounds, organic chemistry was born.

In this chapter, we are going to discuss the melting and boiling points of organic compounds.

The boiling points of ethane (alkane) and ethanoic acid (carboxylic acid) is listed below and they are two different types of organic compounds.

Methane (CH4): -161.50C

The following facts are important when we studying the melting and boiling point values of organic compounds.

Relative Molecular mass

The ability to make hydrogen bonds

Structure of carbon chain

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Melting and boiling points of alkanes, alkenes, alkynes

Alkanes are nonpolar molecules.

There are only Van der Waals forces between alkane molecules.

When relative molecular mass increases in alkane compounds, melting and boiling points values are also increased.

Melting and boiling points increase alkane, alkene, alkyne respectively.

Consider ethane, ethene, ethyne

ethyne (alkyne compound) has the highest melting and boiling point.

When the number of hydrogen bonds and the strength of hydrogen bonds increases, melting and boiling points increase.

Alcohols, aldehyde, ketone and carboxylic acids

All of the alcohols and carboxylic acids can form hydrogen bonds.

Carboxylic acids from the most strong and highest number of hydrogen bonds among them.

So, carboxylic acids have the highest melting and boiling points.

Dipole interactions between aldehydes and ketones molecules are less strong than hydrogen bonds in alcohol.

Therefore melting and boiling points of alcohol are higher than aldehydes and ketones.

Melting and boiling points of alkyl halide compounds

The halogen atom is more electronegative than the carbon atom.

So the C-X bond is polarized.

There are dipole interaction between alkyl halide compounds.

These interactions are much stronger than intermolecular forces between alkanes,

The melting and boiling points of alkyl halide compounds are much higher than alkanes.

When the relative molecular mass of organic compound increases, melting and boiling points also increase.

Now we discuss some problems by comparing different elements and compounds which have different melting and boiling points.

These problems very important in examinations.

Study them carefully.

Isp block metals melting points are higher than s block?

First, we will look, what are the p block metals and what are the s block metals.

You know when we discuss melting points of metals, their metallic lattice is so important.

So now you know what should we find out to compare melting points of p block metals and s block metals.

When the metallic lattice of metal is strong, that metal has a great chance to has a higher melting point.

As examples, two metals, sodium, and aluminum are taken to compare.

Sodium is s block metal and aluminum is a p block metal.

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But both are located in the 3rd period of the periodic table.

Due to the release of three electrons and less radius, the metallic lattice of aluminum is much stronger than sodium.

So the melting point of aluminum is greater than sodium.

Why d block elements have higher melting points than s block elements?

d block elements can contribute more electrons to the metallic lattice.

For example, vanadium can contribute 5 electrons.

Buts block elements can only contribute one or two electrons.

Alkali metals can one electron and alkali earth metals can two electrons.

Contributing more electrons to the metallic lattice will increase the strength of metallic bonds.

Due to more strong metallic bonds, d block elements have higher melting values.

Why H2S having less boiling point than H2O

H2S boiling point: -600C

H2O boiling point: 1000C

At room temperature, hydrogen disulfide (H2S) is a gas.

But water (H2O) is a liquid.

That says us H2S has the less boiling point.

H2S and H2O are bent shape molecules.

O and S are groups of VIA elements.

The molecular mass of H2S = 34 and the molecular mass of H2O = 18.

The molecular mass of H2S is greater than H2O.

But, There are strong hydrogen bonds between H2O molecules.

H2S molecules have only weak dipole interactions.

Hydrogen bonds in H2O

Due to the existence of strong hydrogen bonds in H2O molecules, H2O has a high boiling point than H2S, though H2S has greater molecular mass.

which atom has the highest melting/boiling point between Cs and W?

Tungsten (W) has the highest melting point of all metals.

Cesium (Cs) is a soft metal that has a very low melting point (280C).

Which metal has the highest melting point?

Tungsten (W).

From metals, tungsten has the highest melting point in the periodic table.

It is located in d block.

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3,422 0C is the melting point of tungsten.

Which s block metal has the highest melting point?

Beryllium has the highest melting point from s block metals.

It is about 1,287 0C

boiling and melting points of 1a group order

Li > Na > K > Rb > Cs > Fr > H

Lithium has the highest melting and boiling point while hydrogen has the lowest in the IA group.

Hydrogen exists as a gas at room temperature and francium is a liquid at room temperature.

All other group IA materials are solids at room temperature.

The lowest melting point from metal elements

Mercury (Hg) has the lowest melting point (-38.83 0C) because mercury has a very weak metallic lattice.

Which element has the lowest melting point element in the periodic table

Helium (He) is the element that has the lowest melting point (-272.2 0C).

Helium exists as atoms.

It does not form compounds and no intermolecular force between He atoms.

Also relative molecular mass (1) is very low.

Still, have a question? Ask it now from us and find the answer.

What can understand by the melting and boiling points of elements in the periodic table?

We know, elements in the periodic table are in a solid-state, liquid state and gaseous state.

Intermolecular forces, relative molecular mass are factors which decide the melting and boiling point of the element.

Let's consider two metals.

One metal has a very high melting point than the other one.

In metals, the metallic lattice is the major factor in deciding melting and boiling points.

A more strong metallic lattice have higher melting point.

We can understand about elements' intermolecular forces, relative molecular masses from studying melting and boiling points.

What are some melting points and boiling points of some flammable gases?

We can list several flammable gases and their melting and boiling points of them.

Alkanes are easily flammable.

As an example, consider methane.

Methane's melting and boiling points are -182.40C and -161.50C respectively.

Why different elements have different melting points?

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The melting point depends on their molecular mass and intermolecular forces between elements or molecules.

Different elements have different molecular mass and intermolecular forces.

So their melting point values are different from other elements and compounds.

Why are group IIA elements melting at higher temperatures than group IA elements?

Metallic lattices of group ii metals are much stronger than group I metals because group ii elements give two electrons to the lattice.

Therefore, a group I metals melt at higher temperatures.

why the boiling point of calcium is greater than potassium?

Lattice strength of calcium is greater than potassium due to two reasons.

The radius of calcium is smaller than potassium.

calcium can give two electrons to the metallic lattice while potassium can only give one electron.

Due to these two reasons, the metallic lattice of calcium is much greater than potassium.

what has a melting point of -2190C and a boiling point of -1830C?

Oxygen (O2)Are there any compounds that don't have a melting point?

Yes. There are. Some compounds are not stable to heat.

When heating a such compound, they decompose to another substance.

Example: Nickel carbonate (NiCO3) decomposes to NiO and CO2 on heating.

The melting point of Mg is in s block?

The metallic lattice of magnesium is much strong than sodium.

So the melting point of Mg is higher than Na.

what happens to melt point in s block

If you study s block elements in the same period, you will see alkaline earth metal (group 2) has a higher melting point than alkali metal (group 1) because the lattice strength of alkaline earth metal element is stronger than alkali metal element.

why do some elements have a high melting point?

When some elements are greater in some properties, they have a high melting point.

As examples, we can consider metals.

When we talk about metals, the metallic lattice is a must to understand.

When the metallic lattice is strong, that metal has a higher melting point.

The metallic lattice of sodium is weak than magnesium.

Therefore, magnesium has a high melting point than sodium.

As another example, water and hydrogen sulfide are taken.

Water forms hydrogen bonds which are the strongest intermolecular forces type.

But hydrogen sulfide cannot form hydrogen bonds.

So, water has a higher melting point and also a boiling point too.

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