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The Hardness Of Tantalum Oxide

Tantalum 08/06/2020

the hardness of tantalum oxide

The Hardness Of Tantalum Oxide

Tantalum [tʰantʰal] is a chemical element with the symbol Ta and atomic number 73;

in the periodic table, it is in the fifth subgroup or vanadium group.

It is a rare, ductile, graphite gray, shiny transition metal.

Tantalum is mainly used for high capacitance capacitors with a small size.

As the metal is non-toxic and inert with respect to body fluids, it is also used for implants such as bone nails.

Physical Properties

Tantalum is a distinctly purple-gray, hard-to-steel (Vickers hardness: 60-120 HV ), a high-melting heavy metal that resembles niobium in most of its properties.

It crystallizes in a cubic body-centered crystal structure.

In addition to the cubic α-structure, β-tantalum is also known, which crystallizes in a tetragonal crystal structure corresponding to β-uranium with the lattice parameters a = 1021pm and c = 531pm.

This modification is metastable and can be obtained by electrolysis of a tantalum fluoride melt.

With a melting point of about 3000 ° C tantalum has the highest melting point of all elements after tungsten, carbon, and rhenium.

If only a small amount of carbon or hydrogen is stored in the metal, the melting point increases significantly.

A substoichiometric tantalum carbide with a melting point of 3983 ° C has one of the highest melting points of all substances.

Below a critical temperature of 4.3 Kelvin, tantalum becomes the superconductor.

While pure tantalum is ductile and can be stretched extensively (tensile strength: 240 MPa ), even small amounts of admixture of carbon or hydrogen change the mechanical strength significantly.

The material becomes brittle and difficult to process.

One uses this fact for the production of tantalum powder.

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It is loaded with hydrogen in the art and thus embrittled, then comminuted accordingly and freed from hydrogen at a higher temperature by heating.

Chemical properties

Tantalum is a non-noble metal and reacts at high temperatures with most non-metals, such as oxygen, halogens or carbon.

At room temperature, however, the metal is protected by a thin layer of tantalum (V) oxide and thus passivated.

A reaction takes place only at a temperature of about 300 ° C. As a powder, it is a flammable solid that can easily be ignited by brief exposure to an ignition source and then continue to burn after removal.

The risk of ignition is greater, the finer the substance is distributed.

The metal in a compact form is not flammable.

In most acids’ tantalum is not soluble because of the passivation, even aqua regia cannot dissolve the metal.

Tantalum is attacked only by hydrofluoric acid, oleum (a mixture of sulfuric acid and sulfur trioxide), and molten salts.

Tantalum (Ta) - Properties, Applications

Tantalum is a chemical element with Ta as its symbol.

It belongs to group 5, periodic number 6 of the periodic table.

Tantalum is a silvery metal that is soft in its pure form.

It is a strong and ductile metal and at temperatures below 150°C (302°F), this metal is quite immune to chemical attack.

It is known to be resistant to corrosion as it displays an oxide film on its surface.

This metal is rarely used as an alloying agent as it makes metals brittle with an exception of steel, in which case tantalum increases the ductility, strength, and melting point of steel.

Although quite rare, tantalum is obtained from minerals such as tantalite, columbite, and euxenite.

Tantalum Atomic Weight: 180.948

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What is Tantalum?

Tantalum (symbol Ta) is a hard, heavy metal that is grayish silver in color.

The element was discovered by the Swedish chemist Anders Ekeberg in 1802 while Christian Blomstrand proved that niobium and tantalum are different elements in 1864.

Properties, Isotopes, and Occurrence

This element is a transition metal with a body-centered cubic structure.

It has good electrical and heat conductivity and is hard, ductile, and dense.

It has a boiling point of 6,000℃ (10,832 F) and a melting point of 2,850℃ (5,162 F).

Its melting point is high but lower than that of carbon, osmium, rhenium, and tungsten.

Tantalum is made of two isotopes – Ta-181 and Ta-180m.

The half-life of Ta-180 is just 8 hours.

It forms carbides, fluorides, and oxides, including tantalum carbide, pentachloride, and pentoxide as well as lanthanum tantalate, lithium tantalate, and others.

Other compounds include tantalum sulfide, silicide, nitride, carbide, etc.

Common oxidation states are -1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.

A number of minerals contain tantalum, including polycrase, euxenite, wodginite, microlite, and tantalite.

The element is usually obtained from tantalite.

Tantalite ores contain minerals and metals such as samarskite, niobium, manganese, and iron.

Tantalum is used to manufacture surgical implants, capacitors, aircraft engines, and alloys.

It is used to produce high-temperature devices because of its high melting point.

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The element also has applications in the chemical industry because of its good corrosion resistance.

It is used to manufacture refractive index glass, electron tubes, and alloys for missiles, nuclear reactors,

chemical equipment, and jet engines.

However, the element is rarely added to alloys because it makes some metals more brittle.

Tantalum is used to manufacture tubes because it forms oxides and nitrides that create a vacuum.

In addition, it is used to manufacture special optical glasses, non-ferrous alloys for aerospace and nuclear applications, metallurgical and chemical processing equipment, high-voltage surge arrest?rs, and more.

It is also used to make circuitry for devices and computers, electrolytic capacitors, and tantalum compounds and alloys.

Glass-line equipment is also manufactured.

Its compounds are used to produce clips, mesh, surgical equipment, and machinery.

Health Effects

High concentrations of tantalum can contribute to environmental pollution.

Small amounts have been found in plants.

Exposure by skin contact, ingestion, and inhalation may cause respiratory problems and skin and eye irritation.

Health hazards and dangers include the dangers of explosion, inhalation, and exposure.

Tantalum pentoxide is a colorless solid that reacts with oxidizers and can cause explosions and fire.

Cases of poisoning due to exposure have not been reported, but tantalum is moderately toxic, and if processing involves cutting, melting, or grinding, high concentrations of fumes or dust may be released into the air.

Workers who are exposed to tantalum must meet respiratory, skin protection, and eye protection requirements, as well as ventilation requirements.

They must wear respirators, protective gloves, safety glasses, and other protective equipment.

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Depending on the facility and production processes, air samples may be taken frequently or at regular intervals.

While tantalum is stable, it reacts violently with different compounds and substances, including halocarbons, halogens, copper(II) oxide, and bromine monofluoride.

Under normal circumstances, the metal poses no environmental or health hazards.

Dust and powder, however, are harmful and contribute to air and water pollution.

Releases, spills, and emissions must be contained and controlled.

There are different control methods, for example, exhaust ventilation and dilution ventilation.

Ignition sources are removed in areas where metallic tantalum is processed.

tantalum pentoxide ta2o5

In this work, a tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) layer of tens of nanometers in ... From the nanoindentation experiments, Young's modulus and hardness of the 5min ...

In this research, a crystal plasticity finite element (CP-FE) model is used to investigate the effects of microstructural variability at a notch tip in tantalum single crystals and polycrystals.

It is shown that at the macroscopic scale, the mechanical response of single crystals is sensitive to the crystallographic orientation while the response of polycrystals shows relatively small susceptibility to it.

However, at the microscopic scale, the local stress and strain fields in the vicinity of the crack tip are completely determined by the local crystallographic orientation at the crack tip for both single and polycrystalline specimens with similar mechanical field distributions.more » Variability in the local metrics used (maximum von Mises stress and equivalent plastic strain at 3% deformation) for 100 different realizations of polycrystals fluctuates by up to a factor of 2–7 depending on the local crystallographic texture.

Comparison with experimental data shows that the CP model captures variability in stressâ strain response of polycrystals that can be attributed to the grain-scale microstructural variability.

In conclusion, this work provides a convenient approach to investigate fluctuations in the mechanical behavior of polycrystalline materials induced by grain morphology and crystallographic orientations.« less

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations are used to probe the tensile response of monocrystalline, crystalline, and nanocrystalline tantalum over six orders of magnitude of strain rate.

Our analysis of the strain rate dependence of strength is extended to over nine orders of magnitude by bridging the present simulations to recent laser-driven shock experiments.

Tensile strength shows a power-law dependence with strain rate over this wide range, with different relationships depending on the initial microstructure and active deformation mechanism.

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At high strain rates, multiple spall events occur independently and continue to occur until communication occurs by means of relaxation waves.

Temperature plays a significant role in the reduction of spall strength as the initial shock required to achieve such large strain rates also contributes to temperature rise, through pressure-volume work as well as visco-plastic heating, which leads to softening and sometimes melting upon release.

At ultra-high strain rates, those approaching or exceeding the atomic vibrational frequency, spall strength saturates at the ultimate cohesive strength of the material.


Tantalum is a sensible choice whenever high corrosion resistance is required.

Even though tantalum is not one of the noble metals, it is comparable to them in terms of chemical resistance.

In addition, tantalum is very easy to work at well below room temperature despite its body-centered cubic crystal structure.

Tantalum's corrosion resistance makes it a valuable material in a large number of chemical applications.

We use our "unyielding" material, for example, to produce heat exchangers for the equipment construction sector, charge carriers for furnace construction, implants for medical technology and capacitor components for the electronics industry.

Tantalum sheet Abundance in the Earth's crust 2.0 [g/t]

metallurgy Guaranteed purity You can rely on our quality.

We produce our tantalum products ourselves – from the metal powder right through to the finished product.

As our input material, we use only the purest tantalum powder.

This ensures that you benefit from a very high level of material purity.

We guarantee that our sintered quality tantalum has a purity of 99.95 % (metal purity without Nb).

According to a chemical analysis, the remaining content consists of the following elements:

The presence of Cr (VI) and organic impurities can be excluded definitely because of the production process (multiple heat treatment at temperatures above 1 000 °C in high vacuum atmosphere) *Initial value

A material with special talents

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The wide variety of industrial applications in which our tantalum is used reflect the unique properties of the material.

We briefly present two of these below:

Customized chemical and electrical properties

Due its particularly fine microstructure, tantalum is the perfect material for drawing ultra-slender wires with a flawless, exceptionally pure surface for use in tantalum capacitors.

We can determine the chemical, electrical and mechanical properties of these wires to a high degree of precision.

As a result, our products give our customers tailor-made, consistent component properties which we are continuously developing and refining.

Outstanding resistance and excellent cold ductility

Its excellent resistance coupled with its excellent formability and weldability makes tantalum the perfect material for heat exchangers.

Our tantalum heat exchangers are exceptionally stable and resistant to a range of aggressors.

With our many years of experience in the machining of tantalum, we are also able to manufacture complex dimensions that precisely meet your requirements.

Pure tantalum - or maybe an alloy?

We prepare our tantalum to perform perfectly in every application.

We can determine the following properties through the addition of various alloys:

Physical properties (e.g. melting point, vapor pressure, density, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, heat capacity)

Mechanical properties (e.g. strength, fracture behavior, ductility)

Chemical properties (e.g. corrosion resistance, etchability)

Workability (e.g. machining, formability, weldability)

Structure and recrystallization properties (e.g. recrystallization temperature, proneness to embrittlement, aging effects, grain size)

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And there's more: By using our own customized manufacturing processes, we can modulate various other properties of tantalum across a wide range of values.

The result: Two different tantalum production variants and alloys characterized by different properties that precisely meet the requirements of the intended application.

Pure sintered quality tantalum and pure melted quality tantalum share the following properties:

The high melting point of 2,996 °C

Excellent cold ductility

Recrystallization between 900 °C and 1,450 °C (depending on the level of deformation and purity)

Outstanding resistance against aqueous solutions and metal melts

High level of biocompatibility

When particularly tough jobs beckon, our sintered quality tantalum is the solution: Due to the powder metallurgical production process we employ, sintered quality tantalum (TaS) is particularly fine-grained and pure.

The hardness and wear of electrochemically grown tantalum

These oxides can cause a substantial increase in both the hardness and ... shown that the indentation hardness increases with oxide thickness, ...

High interfacial stresses and coating failure are expected when a hard coating protects a more-compliant substrate in applications involving high-stress wear contact.

Assuming that small differences in stiffness (or modulus) between the coating and substrate are required for a wear-resistant coating in such applications, four approaches have been taken to develop such coatings for cobalt-base alloys.

Hardness, scratch adhesion, and nano-indentation testing identified the most promising candidates for cobalt-base alloys: A thin coating with hard Cr{sub 2}N and less-stiff Cr-N(ss) layers;

a thick, four-layered coating with a 4{mu}m inner layer of Cr-N(ss)/ 1 {mu}m layer of Cr{sub 2}N/4 {micro}m layer more » of Cr-N(ss)/1 {micro} outer layer of Cr{sub 2}N;

a duplex approach of ion nitriding to harden the subsurface, followed by application of a dual-layered Cr{sub 2}N/Cr-N(ss) coating;

and ion nitriding alone.

The low scratch adhesion values and high modulus/hardness values indicate that ZrN, TiN, and plasma carburized coatings represent less beneficial approaches.

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Two different cobalt-base alloys were studied in this work: Haynes 25 and Stellite 3 (Stoody Deloro Stellite).

Based on weight change, profilometry measurements, and metallographic and SEM examinations after four-ball wear testing, the thin Cr{sub 2}N/CrN(ss) coated coupons exhibited a significantly lower wear rate than the uncoated Haynes 25 coupons.

Of greater importance, the thin Cr{sub 2}N/Cr-N(ss) coatings were adherent on the Stellite 3 intermediate balls and Haynes 25 cups and prevented the wear of the cobalt-base substrate.

based on these results, the thin Cr{sub 2}N/Cr-N(ss) coating was the best coating candidate, and this coating could result in a reduced wear rate and less cobalt wears debris.

The ion nitrided coupons exhibited slightly higher wear than the thin Cr{sub 2}N/Cr-N(ss) coated coupons, while the wear of the thin duplex coated coupons was the highest.

However, the nitride layer was adherent and protected the Haynes 25 substrate.

Therefore, modification of the ion nitriding conditions or surface lapping after nitriding are approaches that may improve the wear resistance of the ion nitriding and duplex coatings.

Tantalum oxide films on silicon were prepared by thermal oxidation of vacuum-deposited Ta films.

The optical absorption of these noncrystalline films resembles closely that of crystalline Ta/sub 2/O/sub 5/, indicating a strong similarity in their short-range order structures.

Forgiven oxidation conditions, the refractive index of the oxide films increases from approximately 1.93 to 2.34 as the thickness increases from 12.5 to 111.7 nm.

For a given tantalum film thickness, higher oxidation temperatures result in thicker oxides of lower refractive index.

Additional oxide growth occurs during post oxidation heat-treatment in oxygen while the refractive index decreases.

The refractive index of a more » given oxide film increases from the Si/oxide interface toward the outer surface, e.g., from 2.08 to about 2.4.

These phenomena are attributed to the incorporation of silicon into the Ta oxide during its growth.

However, the estimated amount of silicon in the oxide is not sufficient to explain the observed values if it is assumed that the lowering of the refractive index is due simply to mixing Ta/sub 2/O/sub 5/ with SiO/sub 2/.

Thus, it is concluded that the structure of noncrystalline Ta/sub 2/O/sub 5/ has great flexibility which is further enhanced by incorporating silicon;

the polarizability of the TaO bond is then strongly affected by silicon.

This oxide has been applied as an antireflection film in recently developed shallow junction silicon solar cells of increased conversion efficiency.

The surface modification of the tantalum pentoxide coatings, of tantalum pentoxide coatings deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. ... relatively high hardness due to the covalent nature of their bond.

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