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UHT Ceramics

Tantalum 02/19/2021

UHT ceramics

Uht Ceramics

New Method to Manufacture Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics Uses Microwaves

Ultra-high temperature (UHT) ceramics can withstand highly extreme conditions, such as the heat coming out of a rocket as its launching into space.

Aerospace & Defense

Ultra-high temperature (UHT) ceramics can withstand highly extreme conditions, such as the heat coming out of a rocket as its launching into space.

With support from the National Science Foundation, materials scientist Holly Shulman and her team at a company called Ceralink are developing UHT ceramics using a new method that harnesses the power of microwaves.

The machines they use to make the UHT ceramics still fire up to high temperatures.

But, rather than combining the heat with high pressure to make the material super hard and strong, they use microwave assist technology (MAT) furnaces.

It's a process called 'enhanced diffusion.' The goal is to make the industrial manufacture of high-quality UHT ceramic parts faster and cheaper.

UHT High-Temperature Ceramic

high-temperature ceramic additively manufactured compact

Zirconium boride CAS 12045 64 6

Heat exchangers are critical to efficient thermal energy exchange in a variety of applications, including electricity generation, transportation, petrochemical plants, waste heat recovery, and more.

Heat exchangers designed to handle very high pressures and high temperatures simultaneously are more efficient and compact.

Their design also requires finer heat transfer surface and fin features at the limits of existing manufacturing capabilities with high-temperature materials.

Durable, reliable, and cost-effective higher temperature and pressure heat exchangers that exceed current operating conditions could reduce fuel consumption, system footprint, and capital cost while boosting the performance of a variety of power generation and industrial processes.

Project Innovation + Advantages: Missouri S&T will combine a novel additive manufacturing technique, called ceramic on-demand extrusion, and ceramic fusion welding techniques to manufacture very high-temperature heat exchangers for power cycles with intense heat sources.

Enabling turbine operation at significantly higher inlet temperatures substantially increases power generation efficiency and reduces emissions and water consumption.

The developed heat exchangers will use ultra-high temperature ceramic materials and state-of-the-art design tools and manufacturing techniques to operate under temperatures of 1100-1500°C (2012-2732°F) and pressures of 80-250 bar (1160-3626 psi).

Their high pressure and high-temperature characteristics offer great potential for power plant size and cost reduction to enable future high-efficiency modular power generation systems.

Potential Impact: HI-TEMP projects will enable a revolutionary new class of heat exchangers and innovative approaches to advanced manufacturing with applications for a wide range of commercial and industrial energy producers and consumers.

Security: High-performance, efficient heat exchangers would increase industrial productivity, supporting domestic industries.

The developed manufacturing techniques for high-temperature materials could strengthen the U.S.

leadership in advanced manufacturing.

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Environment: More efficient electricity generation and industrial processes could significantly reduce emissions by enabling more efficient operations.

Economy: HI-TEMP technologies could enable more cost-effective, efficient, and compact modular power generation systems for multiple applications.

UHT-ceramics-Archives-The-American-Ceramic-Society

Ultra-high temperature ceramic matrix composites could be used on some of the hottest portions of hypersonic aircraft if their brittleness is reduced.

Research on using fibers to reinforce these materials increased greatly in the past decade, and a recent review article in an ACerS journal discusses the progress and challenges in this field.

Ultrahigh-temperature ceramics (UHTC) such as hafnium boride and zirconium boride possess a number of extraordinary qualities.

ultra-high-temperature ceramic matrix composites

Carbon-fiber-reinforced-ultra-high-temperature-ceramic-matrix

This oxidation behavior limits the heat-resistant applications of C/SiC composites at extremely high temperatures.

Improvements in the fabrication methods for C/UHTCs are summarized.

•Zr- or Hf-based UHTCs are effective matrices for C/UHTCs.

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•Weak fiber/matrix interface is required to increase the toughness of C/UHTCs.

•Thermal conductivity of C/UHTCs strongly depends on their fiber architecture.

Recent studies on carbon fiber-reinforced ultra-high temperature ceramic matrix (C/UHTC) composites fabricated by hot-pressing, chemical vapor infiltration, polymer impregnation, and pyrolysis, and melt infiltration (MI) are reviewed.

Various efforts have been made to improve these preparation processes and to combine two or more of these because they have both advantages and disadvantages in terms of the processing time, operating temperature, and the porosity of the resulting C/UHTC composites.

In addition, the parameters governing the fracture toughness, thermal conductivity, and recession behavior (in oxidizing environments) of these composites have been discussed.

This review demonstrates that C/UHTC composites with Zr- or Hf-based UHTC matrices fabricated via MI are potential candidates for advanced heat-resistant structural materials.

ultra-high-temperature ceramic matrix composites

Carbon-fiber-reinforced-ultra-high-temperature-ceramic-matrix-

Recent studies on carbon fiber-reinforced ultra-high temperature ceramic matrix (C/UHTC) composites fabricated by hot-pressing, chemical ...

Carbon fiber reinforced ultra-high temperature ceramic matrix composites: A review

Ceramics International ( IF 3.830 ) Yutaro Arai, Ryo Inoue, Ken Goto, Yasuo Kogo

Recent studies on carbon fiber-reinforced ultra-high temperature ceramic matrix (C/UHTC) composites fabricated by hot-pressing, chemical vapor infiltration, polymer impregnation, and pyrolysis, and melt infiltration (MI) are reviewed.

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Various efforts have been made to improve these preparation processes and to combine two or more of these because they have both advantages and disadvantages in terms of the processing time, operating temperature, and the porosity of the resulting C/UHTC composites.

In addition, the parameters governing the fracture toughness, thermal conductivity, and recession behavior (in oxidizing environments) of these composites have been discussed.

This review demonstrates that C/UHTC composites with Zr- or Hf-based UHTC matrices fabricated via MI are potential candidates for advanced heat-resistant structural materials.

ultra-high-temperature ceramic matrix composites

The development of fiber-reinforced ceramics or ceramic matrix composites (CMCs)

The microstructure of a carbon fiber-reinforced ZrC matrix composite, Cf/ZrC, manufactured by reactive melt infiltration (RMI) was characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD), and transmission electron microscopy.

Characterization results revealed a heterogeneous microstructure typical of composites processed by RMI.

The major features that were observed include ZrC single crystals in the matrix, Zr–ZrC eutectic phase, and the fiber/matrix interface.

The hardness and modulus of ZrC single crystals and the eutectic phase were determined through micro-and nanoindentation.

EBSD studies proved that ZrC matrix grains distribute randomly.

Fiber bundle areas were examined and revealed poor intrabundle infiltration.

Factory Supply ZrB2 Powder Zirconium Diboride

Closer inspection of the ZrC crystals revealed the presence of never-before reported inclusions.

Analysis of the inclusions revealed their phase composition and a microstructural formation mechanism outlines their development during processing.

The phase composition was proved to be nanosized α-Zr with a round or needle-like shape.

There are two plausible mechanisms for the formation of the inclusion.

One is the trapping mechanism that some liquid zirconium from grain boundaries of ZrC grains may become trapped inside ZrC particles during their coalescence growth.

The other is the precipitation mechanism that α-Zr may precipitate inside some ZrC grains during the formation of Zr–ZrC eutectic phase or ZrC grains with deficient carbon undercooling.

Ultra High-Temperature Ceramic Composites

Ceramic borides, carbides, and nitrides are characterized by high melting points, chemical inertness, and relatively good oxidation resistance in extreme environments, such as conditions experienced during reentry.

This family of ceramic materials has come to be known as Ultra High-Temperature Ceramics (UHTCs).

Some of the earliest work on UHTCs was conducted by the Air Force in the 1960s and 1970s.

Since then, work has continued sporadically and has primarily been funded by NASA, the Navy, and the Air Force.

This article summarizes some of the early works, with a focus on hafnium diboride and zirconium diboride-based compositions.

These works focused on identifying additives, such as SiC, to improve mechanical or thermal properties, and/or to improve oxidation resistance in extreme environments at temperatures greater than 2000°C.

Keywords: Reentry Vehicle Zirconium Diboride Furnace Test Good Thermal Shock Resistance Hafnium Diboride

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