ALB's Organic Chemicals Website: www.albtechnology.com

Neodymium Magnets

1. Introduction of Neodymium Magnets:

Neodymium Magnets, (also known as NdFeB, NIB or Neo magnets), the most widely used type of rare earth magnets, are permanent magnets made from an alloy of neodymium, iron and boron to form the Nd2Fe14B tetragonal crystalline structure.
Neodymium Magnets are the strongest type of permanent magnets commercially available today.

When we mention the following synonyms typically we all mean Neodymium Magnets:
Neodymium Magnets
= Neodymium Iron Boron Magnets
= NdFeB Magnets
= NIB Magnets
= Neo (Rare Earth) Magnets
= Nd2Fe14B Magnets
= Strongest Magnets
= Strong Magnets

Neodymium Magnets have replaced AlNiCo Magnets and Ferrite Magnets  in many of the myriad applications in modern technology where strong permanent magnets are required, because their greater strength allows the use of smaller, lighter magnets for a given application, such as motors in cordless tools, hard disk drives and magnetic fasteners.

2. Product List of our Neodymium Magnets: Neodymium Magnets

3. What does Item No. stand for?

Products Information from Item Number, ALB-D42SH for example

ALB

-

D

4

2

SH

Company

 

Disc

Diameter: 4/16”

Thickness: 2/16”

Grade: N42SH

 

Item No. : ALB-D42SH

Product: Neodymium Disc Magnets

Grade: N42SH

Dimensions: 1/4" dia. x 1/8" thick

Magnetization Direction: Axial

Surface Plating: Ni-Cu-Ni

 

The symbol in item number:

 

Company

-

Shape

Size

Grade

Other

ALB

-

Disc: D

Block: B

Ring: R

Sphere: R

Arc: A

1: 1/16”

2: 2/16”

……

9: 9/16”

A: 10/16”

B: 11/16”

C: 12/16”

D: 13/16”

E: 14/16”

F: 15/16”

X0: 1”

X1: 1 1/16”

Y0: 2”

Z0: 3”

ZX0: 4”

……

if not specified: Grade N42

SH: Grade N42SH

N52: Grade N52

……

DIA: Magnetization Direction is Diametrical

S: magnetized with the south pole on the countersunk side.

N: magnetized with the north pole on the countersunk side.

P: Pair, one will have the north pole on the countersink side and one will have the south pole on the countersink side

CS: countersunk

DCS: countersunk on both sides

PUR: Plastic-Rubber Coated

MM: Mounting Magnets

……

4. How is Neodymium Magnet Produced?

Production Process of Neodymium Magnets:

1. Vacuum Melting

Compositions of neodymium, iron , iron-boron, dysprosium and minor additions including cobalt , copper , gallium, aluminum and others are mixed and induce-melted to form Nd2Fe14B phase and other necessary structures required for high performance permanent magnets. The melting temperature reaches over 1300o C. Usually repeated melting is needed to produce an even phase and structure distribution .

2. Crushing

The ingots from the vacuum melting process are crushed into coarse powder directly , or strip cast followed by HDDR processing into coarse powder .

3. Jet Milling

The coarse powder further milled into required particles sized about 3 microns in diameter by a jet miller . Those particles become single-domain and anisotropic whichare critical for producing a high coercivity magnet. Jet milling is the most effective way to mill the particles so far.

4. Pressing

Compact the fine powder to produce block magnets. Usually a magnetic field is applied during pressing to align those anisotropic particles in order to produce maximum magnetic output in a particular direction. There are two pressing methods, transverse and axial , depending on different applications. Isostatic pressing is normally used to further densify magnets to 75-80% .

5. Vacuum Sintering

The compacted magnets are sintered at temperatures above 1000 o C and for many hours to be solidified and compacted further more up to 99% by shrinking it's body. A required microstructure between particles for high performance permanent magnets is also formed in this stage. Some following heat-treatments are needed to stabilize the magnets .

6. Machining

Shrinkage and distortion during sintering is too difficult to control adequately and magnets normally need at least a “ clean up” grind on the surface. Small parts are cut or sliced precisely to form a big block to meet the demanding tolerances and different shapes .

7. Surface Treatment

Various surface treatments can be applied on the final products . They include zinc, nickel ,Ni-Cu-Ni multi-layer, e-coating , epoxy and others. They provide different surface finishing, appearance and corrosion resistance, applicable to different application environments.

8. Inspection

This is the final step. Magnets are inspected based on customer specifications and needs, including dimensional and magnetic tests.

5. Shapes of Neodymium Magnets:

Neodymium Magnets are available in DiscCylinderBlock & BarCubeRing & TubeSphere & BallArc & Wedge in a wide range of shapes and sizes. ALB Materials Inc also custom-made shapes according to customer's requirements/drawings.

6. Grade of Neodymium Magnets:

Neodymium Magnets Grade

  NdFeB Magnet Grade

Type

Grade

Residual Induction /BR(Gauss)

Coercive Force/Hc (Oe)

Intrinsic Coercive Force/Hci (Koe)

Max.Energy Product/Bhmax (MGOe)

Maximum Operating Temp (°C/°F)

Curie Temp (°C/°F)

               

N

N35

11700

10900

12

35

80/176

310/590

N

N38

12200

11300

12

38

80/176

310/590

N

N40

12500

11400

12

40

80/176

310/590

N

N42

12800

11500

12

42

80/176

310/590

N

N45

13200

11600

12

45

80/176

310/590

N

N48

13800

11600

12

48

80/176

310/590

N

N50

14000

10000

11

50

60/140

310/590

N

N52

14300

10000

11

52

60/140

310/590

               

M

N33M

11300

10500

14

33

100/212

340/644

M

N35M

11700

10900

14

35

100/212

340/644

M

N38M

12200

11300

14

38

100/212

340/644

M

N40M

12500

11600

14

40

100/212

340/644

M

N42M

12800

12000

14

42

100/212

340/644

M

N45M

13200

12500

14

45

100/212

340/644

M

N48M

13600

12900

14

48

100/212

340/644

M

N50M

14000

13000

14

50

100/212

340/644

               

H

N35H

11700

10900

17

35

120/248

340/644

H

N38H

12200

11300

17

38

120/248

340/644

H

N40H

12500

11600

17

40

120/248

340/644

H

N42H

12800

12000

17

42

120/248

340/644

H

N45H

13200

12100

17

45

120/248

340/644

H

N48H

13700

12500

17

48

120/248

340/644

               

SH

N35SH

11700

11000

20

35

150/302

340/644

SH

N38SH

12200

11400

20

38

150/302

340/644

SH

N40SH

12500

11800

20

40

150/302

340/644

SH

N42SH

12800

12400

20

42

150/302

340/644

SH

N45SH

13200

12600

20

45

150/302

340/644

               

UH

N28UH

10200

9600

25

28

180/356

350/662

UH

N30UH

10800

10200

25

30

180/356

350/662

UH

N33UH

11300

10700

25

33

180/356

350/662

UH

N35UH

11800

10800

25

35

180/356

350/662

UH

N38UH

12200

11000

25

38

180/356

350/662

UH

N40UH

12500

11300

25

40

180/356

350/662

UH

N42UH

12800

11300

25

42

180/356

350/662

               

EH

N28EH

10400

9800

30

28

200/392

350/662

EH

N30EH

10800

10200

30

30

200/392

350/662

EH

N33EH

11300

10500

30

33

200/392

350/662

EH

N35EH

11700

11000

30

35

200/392

350/662

EH

N38EH

12200

11300

30

38

200/392

350/662

EH

N40EH

12500

11300

30

40

200/392

350/662

               

AH

N28AH

10400

9900

33

28

230/446

350/662

AH

N30AH

10800

10300

33

30

230/446

350/662

AH

N33AH

11300

10600

33

33

230/446

350/662

AH

N35AH

11700

11000

33

35

230/446

350/662

AH

N38AH

12200

11300

33

38

230/446

350/662

7. Coating/Plating of Neodymium Magnets:

Neodymium Magnets Coating:

Name

Coating Thickness(μm)

Color

PCT

Humidity Test

Salt Spray Test

Collision Test

White Zinc

8-15

Blue and white

3

3

3

2

Color Zinc

10-15

Multicolor

3

3

2

2

Nickel

20-30

Silver

1

1

3

1

Electroless Nickel

20-30

Silver

1

1

1

1

NiCuNi

15-30

Silver

2

1

2

1

NiSn

20-30

Silver

2

1

2

1

Epoxy

10-30

Black

2

1

1

1

Phosphating

1-3

Black

3

2

3

3

NiAu

10-20

Gold

2

2

2

1

8. Applications of Neodymium Magnets

Neodymium magnets can be used in following application: 
Benchtop NMR spectrometers
Drive motors for hybrid and electric vehicles. 
Electric generators for wind turbines 
Electric motors: Cordless tools
Electrical power steering
Erase heads for cheap cassette recorders
Head actuators for computer hard disks
Lifting and compressor motors
Locks for doors
Loudspeakers and headphones
Magnetic bearings and couplings
Mechanical e-cigarette firing switches
Servomotors
Spindle and stepper motors
Synchronous motors
Toys
Magnetic jewelry clasps
Children's magnetic building sets (and other neodymium magnet toys) 
as part of the closing mechanism of modern sport parachute equipment.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners
etc.

9. Read the magnet safety warnings before you purchase or use magnets

MAGNET SAFETY WARNING

 

Disclaimer: ALB Materials Inc neither assumes nor accepts any liability for damages resulting from the handling or use of magnets. With your purchase, the buyer confirms that you have read and understood the following warnings, the buyer agrees that he/she is responsible for all damages and injuries caused by the magnets, which include personal injuries , property damages and magnet damages. The buyer must agree with the terms before purchase. Pull forces we provide are estimates only and we are not responsible for any inaccuracy of magnet pull force. Please test the pull force before any usage.

 

1. BIG MAGNET WARNING NOTICE:

Neodymium magnets we sell are very strong. Handling them with care is necessary to prevent personal injuries, property damages and magnet damages.
Magnets the size of a 2 inch cube or larger can cause serious damage to fingers if caught between 2 magnets such as breaking bones or losing finger tips.

 

2. SMALL MAGNET WARNING NOTICE:

Small magnets pose a choking hazard and should never be swallowed or inserted into any part of the body. For safety purposes we include this warning to deter children from using/handling small magnets as they can be dangerous. Small magnets are considered a choking hazard that can result in death and should be treated as such. When confirming your order you the customer become fully responsible for the safety of children, animals and anyone else to come into contact with these magnets.

For more information, see the US Consumer Product Safety Commission's News Release and Magnets Information Center webpages linked below.

1. 16 CFR Part 1240 - http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/retrieveECFR?gp=1&SID=271341d1457a4e3afc811d9609e87ac0&ty=HTML&h=L&mc=true&r=PART&n=pt16.2.1240
2. News Release - http://www.cpsc.gov/en/Newsroom/News-Releases/2014/CPSC-Approves-Strong-Federal-Safety-Standard-for-High-Powered-Magnet-Sets-to-Protect-Children-and-Teenagers/
3. Magnets Information Center - http://www.cpsc.gov/en/Safety-Education/Safety-Education-Centers/Magnets

 

3. SAFETY HANDLING OF NEODYMIUM MAGNETS

Neodymium magnets are brittle; they can be broken or can splinter in a collision. One should wear gloves and protective glasses when handling these magnets, because splinters and/or spacers could disengage and fly from the magnets.
Normal Neodymium magnets will lose their magnetic properties if heated above 175°F (80° C). Higher temperature rare earth neodymium magnets are available in our company.
The strong magnetic fields of neodymium magnets can damage items such as television, computer monitors, credit cards, bank cards, computers, diskettes and other data carriers, video tapes, mechanical watches, hearing aids, loud speakers and VCRs. Pace-makers may be damaged or switch to "Test Mode" in the presence of a strong magnetic force, if a pace-maker or other electrical body implant is in use, keep a minimum of 3 feet distance.
Children should not be allowed to handle neodymium magnets as they can be dangerous. Small magnets pose a choking hazard and should never be swallowed or inserted into any part of the body.
Under no circumstances should you try to cut, saw or drill the Neodymium magnets! Not only would the magnet break, but the resulting dust from the magnet is very flammable. Neodymium magnets should never be burned, as burning them will create toxic fumes.


10. Permanent Magnets Handbook: permanent-magnets-handbook.pdf